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ASSESSMENT FINDINGS|BLOOD TRANSFUSION

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Clinical manifestations of transfusions complications vary depending on the precipitating factor.

Signs and symptoms of hemolytic transfusion reaction include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • low back pain
  • flank pain
  • headache
  • nausea
  • flushing
  • tachycardia
  • tachypnea
  • hypotension
  • hemoglobinuria (cola-colored urine)

Clinical signs and laboratory findings in delayed hemolytic reaction include:

  • fever
  • mild jaundice
  • gradual fall of hemoglobin
  • Coombs’ test

Febrile non-hemolytic reaction is marked by:

  • Temperature rise during or shortly after transfusion
  • Chills
  • headache
  • flushing
  • anxiety

Signs and symptoms of septic reaction include;

  • Rapid onset of high fever and chills
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • marked hypotension

Allergic reactions may produce:

  • hives
  • generalized pruritus
  • wheezing or anaphylaxis (rarely)
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Signs and symptoms of circulatory overload include:

  • Dyspnea
  • cough
  • rales
  • jugular vein distention

Manifestations of infectious disease transmitted through transfusion may develop rapidly or insidiously, depending on the disease.

Characteristics of GVH disease include:

  • Characteristics of GVH disease include:
  • skin changes (e.g. erythema, ulcerations, scaling)
  • edema
  • hair loss
  • hemolytic anemia

Reactions associated with massive transfusion produce varying manifestations.

GVH Disease (Graft-versus-host disease ) is a common complication following an allogeneic tissue transplant. It is commonly associated with stem cell or bone marrow transplants but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. Immune cells (white blood cells) in the tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as “foreign”. The transplanted immune cells then attack the host’s body cells. GVHD can also occur after a blood transfusion if the blood products used have not been irradiated.

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